Born London 1948. Educated High School of Glasgow and Wyggeston Grammar School, Leicester. BA, modern history, Balliol College, Oxford 1969. Graduate studentship, Nuffield College, Oxford 1969-73. Visiting research student, University of Jerusalem, 1970-71. MA, Oxford 1972. DPhil, modern Hhstory, Nuffield College, Oxford 1974. D Litt, Oxford 2001. Research fellow in politics, Nuffield College, Oxford 1973-75. College lecturer in modern history and international relations, Corpus Christi College, Oxford 1974-76. Lecturer in modern history, Sheffield University 1976-79. Visiting lecturer in history and international relations, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1979-80. Associate professor of history, Brandeis University, 1980-82, Professor 1982-96. Visiting fellow, Institute of Advanced Studies, Hebrew University of Jerusalem 1984-5. Dean of Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Brandeis University 1990-92. National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship 1994-5. Visiting fellow, All Souls College Oxford, 1995. President, Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies, and fellow, St. Cross College 1996-2000. Professor of modern history, University of Glasgow 2000-3. Fellow, National Humanities Center, North Carolina, 2002-3. Fellow, Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin, 2004-5. Guggenheim Fellow 2007-8. Visiting fellow, Sackler Institute for Advanced Studies, Tel Aviv University, 2008. Visiting fellow, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Studies, Uppsala, 2011-12. Corresponding fellow of the British Academy, 2012. Allianz Visiting Professor of Jewish History, Ludwig Maximilians Universität, Munich, 2015-16.